Gingivitis and periodontitis, causes and treatment

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Periodontal disease is one of the most common dental conditions. The progression of the periodontitis is very slow and does not necessarily have symptoms, so many people do not know that they suffer from it.


Periodontal disease

According to reports 35% of adult people have periodontal disease. It is a general condition that can be divided into two main categories, gingivitis, which is the initial stage of periodontal disease and periodontitis, which is the advanced stage.

 Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums and is characterized by swollen, red gums that bleed easily. It is characterized by bad breath, destruction of the conenctive tissues supporting the teeth and if not treated properly can lead to periodontitis.

Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition characterized by damages of the bone and connective tissues surrounding the teeth. It is characterized by inflammatory gums, loose teeth, gum bleeding and formation of periodontal pockets, between the gum and the tooth. There are various forms of periodontitis (chronic, aggressive, necrotizing, etc.), with final stage the tooth loss.


Causes of periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is caused due to the overgrowth of bacteria and the creation of microbial plaque in the teeth. Dental plaque, in turn, is created due to the accumulation of food in the teeth and the overgrowth of microbes because of lack of oral hygiene.

Microbial dental plaque in combination with saliva salts leads to the formation of stones, which is difficult to remove.


Risk factors

Most common risk factors of periodontal disease are:

  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Hormonal changes
  • Diseases like diabetes
  • Heredity

Prevention and treatment

Prevention and treatment of periodontitis requires proper oral hygiene.

  • Proper brushing of teeth and gums. Use soft toothbrushes that do not destroy tooth enamel and do not irritate/bleed gums.
  • Use of tongue cleanser
  • Systematic use of dental floss and interdental brushes.
  • Use toothpaste for periodontitis. Avoid the use of very strong toothpastes, especially if your gums have receded. Toothpastes may contain fluoride, metal salts, peroxide, soda and xylitol.
  • Use of suitable oral solutions for periodontitis. Chlorhexidine is one of the most common and effective ingredients that reduces microbes and treat gingivitis. Its use is for a short period of time. Avoid oral solutions that contain alcohol.
  • Do not grit your teeth, especially if the teeth are loose. Use gum shields during sleep.
  • Quit smoking, as it significantly increases the chances of having periodontal disease.
  • Have a balanced diet rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, so that body can easily restore the damaged tissues.


In any case, you should visit a dentist or periodontist who will appreciate the severity of periodontitis and suggest appropriate treatment.

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