Coffee derives from the coffee bean of coffee trees, a pretty evergreen bush. In the world, there are more than 60 recognized coffee varieties, which differ in the organoleptic characteristics of coffee, like taste, flavor and intensity. The stages of coffee production are the collection of coffee beans, processing, roasting and grinding of coffeebeans.
The composition of coffee can vary greatly depending on the variety and the way of processing. Regarding macronutrients, coffee contains carbohydrates, especially polysaccharides, proteins and nitrogen compounds, like caffeine and almost no fat. Regarding micronutrients contains B vitamins, vitamin C, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and sulfur as well as certain acids such as chlorogenic acid and lignans.
Actions of caffeine
Caffeine is a white crystalline substance which has a characteristic bitter taste. It is absorbed within 30-60 minutes of taking and remains in the body for almost about 4 hours. Effects and positive actions of caffeine, as found by many studies, are:
- Increased food thermogenesis
- Promotes directly or indirectly weight / fat loss
- Provides energy
- Improves reflexes
- Reduces stress and fatigue
- Antioxidant protection
- Improves mental status
- Improves memory and mental performance
- Increase physical energy and athletic performance
- Promotes better glycemic control
The main effect of caffeine is overstimulation and its ability to enhance alertness. It is now clearly documented that caffeine stimulates the central nervous system by blocking the action of adenosine. The result is the brain not to enter into rest phase and not to receive messages of fatigue, thus caffeine enhances mental and physical ability.
Although caffeine stimulates nervous system there are no clear references that link caffeine consumption with increased blood pressure. Moreover, it appears that caffeine exerts a protective action regarding certain types of cancer (e.g., colon, liver, endometrium cancer etc.), thanks to its antioxidant phytochemicals substances.
Although it is a very tasty drink, it still has some contraindications. Caffeine because of nerve stimulation can lead to frustration, insomnia, increased heart rate and stress. Many people report that caffeine intake can cause some gastrointestinal symptoms (eg, gastroesophageal reflux disease), however there are no many studies that support such kind of property. People who have insomnia or suffer from sleep disorders, irritation, children, pregnant or lactating women should reduce caffeine intake in order to avoid any adverse situation.
The average recommended intake of coffee is 1 to 3 cups per day. However, because excessive intake of caffeine can have some adverse effects, there is an upper limit of caffeine consumption up to 400mg / day (4 cups) for adults and up to 200mg / day (~ 2 cups) for women of reproductive age. Caffeine is found in many foods apart from coffee, so you need to take everything into account.